History is simply defined as the study of the past. Additionally, it is the special attention to the activities that humans experience over a certain time period. Historians are the professional scholars who write about various aspects of history. This is a type of research field that takes a sequence of events and narrates them for examination and to be analyzed.
The term, prehistory, refers to the time period before history began to be recorded. The term came into use from Paul Tournal, an archeologist, who used it to describe his findings from caves located in southern France. Prehistorians typically use the three-age system in a way to define different periods: first was the Stone Age, then came the Bronze Age followed by the Iron Age. Additionally, there were four periods within the Stone Age: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic.
Early civilization refers to those that existed in ancient history. During the Mesopotamian period between 3000 and 750 BC, this civilization was located in Babylonia, Sumer and Assyric Highlands. Their occupations included the potter’s wheel, metal working, the sexagesimal system, textiling and dairy farming; their writing was cuneiform and their religion, polytheistic. Other early civilizations included the Egyptians, Chinese, Iranian, Greek, Harappa-Sindu/Saraswathi, Roman, Mayan, Aztecs and Incas.
The Classical Period was directed towards cultures that existed in the Mediterranean world during the ancient times. It is the branch of humanities that is comprised of archeology, art, history, philosophy, literature and languages. The parts of the world that were a part of this period were mainly Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece between 600 BC and 600 AD. The sub-disciplines within this area of study include philology, archaeology, art history, philosophy and civilization and history.
The Middle Ages existed between the 5th and the 15th centuries. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire is when this period came into play. It preceded the Early Modern Era and is the middle portion of history’s division of three periods: Classic, Medieval and Modern. In other words, this period is also referred to as the Medieval period. During the early portion of this period, some of the trends that were previously set continued; these included an increased invasion of barbarians, deurbanization and depopulation.
The pre-Columbian era is the period of time that existed before Europe made significant influences on the continents of America. This is the time period in America that encompasses the prehistoric and historic time period. Technically, this is the time period before 1492, the time of Christopher Columbus’ voyages. Other terms that are used to describe this period include Prehistoric Americas and Pre-Colonial Americas.
The Renaissance period began in Florence around the 14th century and span to the rest of Europe up until the 17th century. This was a cultural movement that took advantage of learning that was based on classical sources and included politics, religion, art, science and literature. This time period is considered the bridge before the Modern era and after the Middle Ages. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo are the two who were the inspirations behind “Renaissance man.
The Modern era, or modern history, is the time period that occurred after the Middle Ages. Furthermore, this period can be broken down into the early and late modern periods, which occurred after the period of the French Revolution and when the Industrial Revolution occurred. The historic events that occurred directly before the current are referred to as parts of contemporary history. These events are relevant to the present.